To Make Cheese.

Take the night’s milk, strain it into a tin vat, or large tub. If very warm, fill a largo tin vessel with cold water and set it in the milk. In the morning take off tho cream, and add the morning’s milk. Warm the cream and add it to the milk, and then warm all until it is ninety degrees, testing it by a thermometer, color with annatto, allowing half an ounce to seventy-five pounds of cheese. Put in the rennet, allowing a square inch to eighty .quarts of milk, let it stand forty-five minutes. Cut the curd with a knife, and let it stand ten minutes longer, then break it up with the hand, and leave it to settle for a few minutes. Draw off all the whey, breaking and working the curd gently. Add salt in tho proportion of one pound to thirty of curd. Put it in the hoop, and put on a light pressure, for two or three hours, then take it out, turn it and press it again for twenty hours, or longer. When taken from the press oil it with butter and set it on a shelf in a cool, dry room. Oil and turn it every day until firm. Sow bandages around cheese when taken from the press, to preserve their form.

How to make Cheese from One Cow

How to make Cheese from One Cow.

Take cool weather, either in spring or fall, when milk and cream will keep, and when flies are scarce. Strain your milk in some deep vessel that will hold two milkings; in the morning skim slightly; warm the milk to blood heat, add the water in which has been soaked a bit of rennet about two inches square, over night, and as soon as stiff, cut with a carving or other knife; let it stand a few minutes, when you can put it into a cloth strainer, and lay by until you accumulate as largo a curd as your hoop will hold, when you chop tho whole, scalding with hot whey, just so it will give a creaking sound if chewed. Then add a little salt, sage, or whatever you like, and press. The whole operation need not require over an hour’s time.


To Prepare the Rennet. Take out the stomach of a calf as soon as killed, and well scour it inside and out with salt, after it Is cleared of the curd always found in it. Let it drain a few hours; then sew it up with two good handfuls of salt in it; or stretch it on a stick, well salted ; or keep it in the salt, wet; when wanted, soak a bit, which will do over and over again by using fresh water.

‘ The Bavarian mode of Preserving- Rennet.

This mode of curing consists in turning out the contents of the skin of the stomach, wiping off all specks or dirt with a cloth, and then blowing up tho skin or filling it with air like a bladder. The ends are tied with a string, and a little salt applied to this part only. The skin treated in this way soon dries perfectly, and is as sweet and clean as can be desired. Bait neutralizes in some degree the action of rennet, therefore rennets treated on the Bavarian plan are much more effective than those cured in the old way. When the rennets cured on this plan are dry, the air may be expelled and tho skins can be packed away in a small space, and are easily kept clear of insects. The defect in salted rennets is that o the salt in wet weather accumulates dampness, and if care is not taken to keep them in a dry place, they drip, and thus lose their strength. Rennets preserved on the Bavarian plan are stronger as well as sweeter than any others.

Farmer’s Cheese

Farmer’s Cheese

This cheese is a delight to make especially for the beginner. No muss, No fuss!

One gallon of cow or goats milk. Milk can be fresh, or a few days old from the fridge.
Add One tablespoon salt.
Place in large enough pot and turn heat to just over medium.
Stir often to prevent burning.
Let it slow boil for about one minute.
Making Cheese Curds

Let cool for about five minutes.

Add 3/4 cup of Realemon Juice or Vinegar and Stir once.

Curdles should form.

Pour into a cheese cloth and drain whey.

Take cheese curds and place into small container. Press it into the container if you want to make it harder.

Taste it. Place in the refrigerator if there is any left!

Eat within five days.

To make flavored cheeses add some fresh garden items for variety from the list below:
Fresh dill, garlic powder, crushed anise, crushed hot peppers, or black pepper.

This cheese can be spread on crackers or bread, crumbled into salad

How to Feta

Feta Cheese requires salt brine and culture recipes given below.
Culture Recipe:

To make your own culture purchase one pint of plain yougurt. Add this to an equal amount of milk in a mason jar with a lid. Let sit for two days on the counter.

Add one half of this culture to the milk for cheese.
Fill the jar back up with more milk into the culture for next time, let sit for a day, place in the fridge until ready to use.
Storing Feta Cheese
Salt Brine:

To one gallon of water add 2 cups of coarse salt.
Heat on stove until salt disappears. Let cool.
Feta Cheese Recipe:

One gallon of goats milk. Milk can be sour or a few days old.
Add one half the culture of above.
Let sit for two days on counter.

Add One tablespoon salt.
Place in large enough pot and turn heat to just over medium.
Stir often to prevent burning.
Let it slow boil for about one minute.

Let cool for about ten minutes.

Curdles should have formed. If you have trouble getting curds add 3/4 cup of vinegar or Realemon juice.

Pour into a cheese cloth and drain whey.

Take cheese curds and press with hands into small container or let hang in cheese cloth for a few hours and press with hands before removing.

Place into bowl large enough to hold cheese. Cover with brine and let sit in cool area or fridge for two days.

Slice or crumble into salads and enjoy.

You can experiment with the sharpness of the cheese by aging a little longer.

Pinto Bean Fry Bread


* ¼ Tsp. Black Pepper
* 1 Tsp. Salt
* 1 Tblsp. Baking Powder
* 2c. Flour
* 2c. Pinto Beans With Broth


Place the pinto beans in a bowl and mix in the salt, baking powder, and black pepper.
Add enough of the flour to make a thick mixture.
Heat frying pan, add a tablespoon of lard.
Spoon in mixture like small pancakes, brown on both sides.

The right stock on your land.

If you look at small subsistence farmers around the world certain things stand out as being universal.

Very few of them raise cattle in any large way.

The most common stock on small farms around the world are Goats, Chickens and Swine.

These animals are universal due to their ability to forage and easy manageability.

Cattle require large areas to graze. Are much harder to manage and pound for pound are not a efficient as the smaller goats.

Another item to consider is the breeds of your stock. Almost all common breeds have been specialized for one purpose only. They often have difficulties with birthing their young. In many the ability to forage is almost completely bred out.

For a operation where large supplies of commercial feed are easily available. This is of little concern. The ability to gain weight faster or give a few more ounces of milk per milking is paramount.

On a small home stead the ability to birth easily and to be able to forage is much more important.

I often see people who are “planning for disaster” talking about raising Cornish X. Yes they are rapid maturing and yes they are huge. But they need large amounts of feed and have a very high mortality.

A much better choice would be one of the heritage breeds for the small farm operation.

These breeds are dual purpose they lay eggs as well as provide meat. Also they are able to forage for them selves and require little supplemental feed.

They also still retain the “broodiness” or if you prefer they will sit and hatch their eggs. Many of the modern breeds have had this almost totally bred out of them over the years in the pursuit of more eggs or more meat in meat chickens.

Swine are another example, the modern swine is bred to have very little fat on it’s body. The heritage breed have larger amounts of fat. In a subsistence operation these fats are necessary for nutrition as well as many other uses.

Soap making requires ashes and fat. Cooking needs the lard for so many uses.

Remember if you are living in a subsistence type of situation your caloric requirements will greatly escalate.

The more work or feed required by your stock the higher the effect on your own caloric requirements.

Basic Bean Soup

It’s healthy, nutritious, and filling. Add some homemade bread to the mix, and you’ve got a very good meal.

I’m going to list the basic recipe, and you can adjust it however you like.

1lb bag of dried legumes. (Any kind will do. Beans, blackeyed peas, whatever)
1 teaspoon garlic powder (real garlic powder is preferable)
1 teaspoon salt or salt to taste

If beans are dried, they will need to be rehydrated. Get a mixing bowl or pan and put the legumes in it and fill the water about 2 inches above the legumes. Let sit to rehydrate overnight.

Drain and rinse the legumes.

Put the legumes in a stock or soup pan and fill the water about 2 or 3 inches above the legumes (depending upon how much ‘soup’ you want to make).

Add the salt and the garlic powder. (Real garlic is good too, if you have some, mince and add.)

Bring contents to a roiling boil.

Stir frequently to make sure it does not overflow and foam.

Once it is boiling for a few minutes, reduce heat to about 4 on a scale of 10 (adjust to your stove equivalent) for 40% max heat.

Cook for approximately 1 hour, or however long it takes for your particular beans to be tender.

Enjoy your soup!

The variations on a theme with this soup are infinite.

Adjust it to whatever you have on hand.

If you have carrots and onions, and fresh garlic, throw them in.

If you have potatoes, or turnips, throw them in.

Got extra potherbs lying around from foraging? Throw them in.

Got any kind of meat (even squirrel or small bird), or any kind of fish available? Cut it up in small pieces, and…THROW IT IN!

Same with turkey, chicken, pork, or beef bones. Anything extra adds flavor and nutrients.

Now you’ve just learned how to make a basic, tasty, and nutritious soup that may save your life one day.

This can also be done over a campfire, with a reduction in heat achieved by letting the fire die down a bit, or by elevating the pan over a grill or grate above the fire.

ANZAC Biscuits

1 cup each of plain flour, sugar, rolled oats, and coconut
4 oz butter
1 tbls treacle (golden syrup)
2 tbls boiling water
1 tsp bicarbonate soda (add a little more water if mixture is too dry)

1. Grease biscuit tray and pre-heat oven to 180°C.
2. Combine dry ingredients.
3. Melt together butter and golden syrup. Combine water and bicarbonate soda, and add to butter mixture.
4. Mix butter mixture and dry ingredients.
5. Drop teaspoons of mixture onto tray, allowing room for spreading.
6. Bake for 10 to 15 minutes or until golden. Allow to cool on tray for a few minutes before transferring to cooling racks.


Bannock is a bread that you can cook using little more than a fire and a stick though it can also be baked or fried. Names for bannock include bushbread, trail bread, grease bread and galette.

Bannocks origins are lost in the mists of time, but some believe bannock was first made by the Scotts from the same oat flour that gave their horses great strength and endurance. With stomachs fed with hearty oat bannock those who became explorers and mountain men in the new world introduced the bannock recipe to the Native Americans and other outdoorsmen who lived in the wilderness.

The most simple bannock recipe consists of just flour of nearly any kind and water. Kneaded into a dough and wrapped around a green stick, this most basic bannock cooks into a fine tasting bread that can be eaten alone or used as a basis for a full course meal.

The following recipe provides enough bannock for one day. Stored in a waterproof bag, it is easy to carry a week or ten day supply.

1-cup whole wheat flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
¼ teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons milk powder

Mix all the ingredients well, making sure the butter is evenly distributed throughout. Sometimes I will melt the butter before adding it to the mixture. Then slowly add water while mixing until a dough ball is formed.

Make the bannock dough into a cigar shape and wrap it around a green stick. Try to keep the thickness of the dough about ½ inch.

Slowly roast the bannock over a hot fire, rotating occasionally until it turns a golden brown.

Multi-flour Bannock Recipe

This combination of flours, spices, and dried fruit makes the bannock a delicious meal of itself and makes me hungry just thinking about it. It can be cooked over an open fire on a green stick or formed into a loaf and baked and makes a 3-day supply:

1 Cup Barley flour
1 Cup Wheat flour
1/2 Cup Rolled Oats
1 Cup White Sugar
1/2 to 1 Cup Raisins or other dried fruit
1 1/2 Cup Buttermilk
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 tbsp. Coarse Ground Salt
1 tbsp. Cinnamon
1 tbsp. Cloves
1 tbsp. Nutmeg

Fried Bannock

If you like fried foods then you need to try fried Bannock.

4 cups flour
2 tbsp baking powder
2 tbsp sugar
1/2 cup milk

1/4 cup margarine/butter
2 eggs
1/4 tbsp salt

Mix all the ingredients so a dough ball is formed. Break off pieces and flatten into rounds about ½ inch thick. Fry to a golden brown in the oil of your choice.